Jhum Cultivation of Tribes – A Case Research in Tripura


Jhum Cultivation is among the oldest cultivation system practiced all through the tropics and subtropics (zones of excessive rainfall, average temperature, and steep slopes) because the time of Neolithic interval (1300-3000 BC). In accordance with the findings of the Central Forestry Fee of India in 1984, 6.7 million ha land of cultivable neighborhood was affected by jhum within the nation. The individuals of north-east India follow jhum cultivation on hill slopes. Jhum cultivation contributes 85% of the overall cultivation in north-east India. Inhabitants explosion and emergence of latest era of youth cultivators inspired rising demand for cultivable land which resulted discount of the cycle of cultivation from 25-30 years to 2-Three years because of the abandoning and re-occupying of fallow land ceaselessly. Fallow cycle of 20-30 yr prevalent throughout ancient times, helps the land to return to its pure situation after the anthropogenic disturbances. However because of discount of cycle to 2-Three years, the resilience of ecosystem is interrupted and the standard of the land is get worsening day-to-day.

What’s Jhum Cultivation?

For jhum cultivation farmers typically choose a forest patch and clear fell the vegetation usually in between the month of December and January. After that they burn the vegetation as per their requirement. Throughout this follow, small cut-trunks portion and roots of the vegetation are usually not eliminated. The herbs, shrubs and twigs and branches (slashed vegetation) are burnt in between the month of February and March. Seeds are sowed in the course of the month of April and Might. Farmers will proceed the jhum cultivation for a number of years and depart the cultivated space and stick with it search to shift to a second forest websites. After leaving the second website they are going to return to the earlier website, and as soon as once more follow jhum cultivation on it. From the point of view of abrasion, the second yr of jhumming cycle is extra hazardous than the primary yr.

Jhum Cultivationin TRIPURA

As part of their custom, majority of the tribes in Tripura follow shifting or jhum cultivation as the first supply of their livelihood and have been popularly generally known as jhumias.

In accordance with the Tripura Human Improvement Report 2007, vital populations in Tripura are primarily depending on forests and jhum cultivation as their important supply of livelihood.

In accordance with J.B. Ganguly (1969), by the yr 1961, there have been about 25,000 households who practiced jhum cultivation within the state. By 1978, this quantity had elevated to 46,854 households, of which about 23,292 households have been primarily depending on jhum for his or her livelihood. By 1987 the estimate was revised to 49,800 households that have been roughly depending on jhum cultivation for his or her livelihood. In accordance with the report of Division of Tribal Welfare Govt. of Tripura in 1999, 51,265 households have been depending on jhum cultivation. Variety of jhumia households was discovered to be highest in Dhalai and South District. The Division of Forest, Govt. of Tripura, of their first-ever Census on hardcore shifting cultivators within the sate in 2007, discovered 27,278 households (or 1, 36,000 individuals) depending on jhum cultivation.

Jhumia settlement initiatives in Tripura

Though there’s a clear decline within the variety of jhumia households within the Tripura state, nonetheless variety of household persevering with the jhum cultivation within the state. Nearly 10 % forests space is beneath jhum or shifting cultivation within the State. The primary try of settlement of jhumias in Tripura was began in 1930-31, when Maharaja Bir Bikram Manikya put aside an space of 28,490 ha in Khowai Sub-division, referred to as Kalyanpur Reserve, for the settlement of jhumia households. In 1943, the realm was elevated to 505,053 ha and the Immigration and Reclamation Division was opened newly to develop the huge tracts of untamed land to populate these areas. Maharaja Bir Bikram Manikya additionally developed a normal coverage to research the urge of jhumias to carry them to settled plough cultivation and Tenancy Act (Tenant and Landlord Act, 1886) of the state supported the jhumias with a particular incentive for persevering with plough cultivation. However these efforts have been proved to be unfruitful to unravel the issue of jhumia settlement within the state.

Systematic efforts to regulate jhum cultivation and settle the jhumias within the state began in 1953, with adoption of a two-dimensional (short-term and long-term) technique to deal with the problems pertained to the ecological stability and financial development of the state affected by jhooming. The short-term method included measures to enhance yields from jhooming and reduction measures pending their resettlement, whereas the long-term measures have been designed to wean the jhumias away from jhooming and resettle them by way of alternate occupations within the specifically setup colonies. Each these settlement and colonization schemes have been a part of the general technique of the “shifting cultivation control scheme” initiated within the first plan interval. Underneath the settlement scheme, every jhumia household was given cultivable land appropriate for settled agriculture and a money grant (Report of the Commissioner for Scheduled caste and tribes, 1955-56). Authorities has established colony for the jhumias and allotted a dwelling home to every household beneath the colonial scheme with the services required for his or her well being, schooling, poultry farming and advertising. Until the interval of implementation of Ninth 5 Yr Plan, above 49000 households rehabilitated with the help of settled agriculture within the state.

Fundamental causes behind persevering with Jhum Cultivation in Tripura

Adjustment drawback with non-tribes within the settled space: Since tribal are very a lot keen on God therefore they confronted issue for constructing worship place of a specific faith when there may be blended inhabitants. The tribal of Tripura are both Hidus, Christians or Buddhists and there are additionally different spiritual group the place they stay. Socio-economic situations of the tribal additionally differ from the opposite neighboring non-tribes.

Lack of enough attraction in direction of their colonial house:

a. Colonies aren’t set based on the faith and tradition of the tribes.

b. Rehabilitation of the tribal household is much away from their unique habitat

c. Lack of social setting and freedom within the rehabilitation space.

d. Lack of particular coaching for plan land cultivation.

Monetary drawback: Authorities schemes aren’t sufficient to make them financially dependable to remain within the new colony for preliminary years. In accordance with the rehabilitation schemes within the yr 1953-54, every household was allotted 5 acres of arable land over and above a grant of Rs. 500/- for buying the important necessities to help cultivation. Out of this cultivation in a while rubber plantation was one of many vital cultivation which was offered to them. However it took at the very least 7-Eight years to show right into a mature productive plant to offer the incomes. However they have been neither economically robust nor expert sufficient to go for an alternate supply of incomes throughout that interval.

Lack of Correct Training: Accessible knowledge on dropouts of scholars within the state revealed existence of instructional wastage each on the State and nationwide degree. Dropout charge on the major stage was estimated to be considerably larger in schedule tribes than the final class of pupils and scheduled caste. Similar tendencies have been additionally noticed within the center and secondary phases. This proves the unsteady in addition to pathetic situations of the tribal communities in India.


It’s obvious that jhum cultivation has its opposed have an effect on on the species variety of a area as this unscientific type of agricultural follow constantly degrading the amount and high quality of the pure habitats of assorted floras and faunas. Destruction of the pure habitats of the residing organisms that brings ecological imbalance within the ecosystem can also be forbidden by the forest legal guidelines and acts. However nonetheless good numbers of latest class of shifting cultivators are training the shifting cultivation all through the northeastern states unaware of these info. That is the time to carry our hand collectively to assist the individuals to be educationally sound sufficient to grasp the present ecological hazards in addition to to create a powerful consciousness in regards to the deleterious results of shifting cultivation amongst all of the tribes and non-tribes of the North East area to revive the ecosystem of this potential scorching spot area.

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