Nigeria, mentioned to be big of Africa and with a strong inhabitants of over 150 million, can boast of bountiful provide of human sources, each expert and unskilled, made up of women and men, account for the capital base of the nation. Nevertheless, it could be pertinent to notice that the variety of expert however idle far outweighs the unskilled and dealing (Rotimi Ige, Tribune Newspaper; Tuesday sixth July, 2010. ). The above cited work represents the view of most Nigerian populace on Nigeria and the extent of unemployment in its economic system. Earlier than we’ll disclose extra into the discourse, tell us what the idea ‘unemployment’ connotes. Ewa Udu and Agu (2000) outline unemployment as a state of affairs through which individuals succesful and prepared to work are unable to seek out appropriate paid employment.
Unemployment might be seasonal, frictional, internationally transmitted or structural. Seasonal unemployment happens in industries which are seasonal in nature. Such industries interact labour briefly throughout the peak intervals and lay them off within the off-peak seasons. Once more frictional unemployment exists when explicit occupation has surplus employees in a single a part of the nation whereas areas for related jobs are very a lot out there and aren’t stuffed in different geographical places of the identical nation. Poor information of the existence of job alternative elsewhere and labour immobility are the foremost issue that give rise to one of these unemployment. Furthermore, in export-oriented industries, if demand within the industries falls off resulting from deterioration of commerce of the importing nation, most employees within the industries shall be laid off. Typically, there could also be modifications within the sample of combination demand and within the methods of within the trade. When this happens in an hostile manner, some employees could also be affected and they are going to be retrenched. That is termed structural unemployment.
In 2006, the speed of unemployment was solely 2. 9%. It rose to an outrageous price of 5. eight% in 2007. Thereafter, it fell barely to four. 9% in 2008. Since then, it remained static at that stage until the current 2010 (CIA World Factbook). These statistics don’t painting Nigerian economic system within the constructive as regards employment of human sources as a result of in a rustic like Britain, 2% price of unemployment of the labour drive is taken into account very excessive. Latest launch by the Nationwide Bureau of Statistics reviews that over 20 million graduates are unemployed in Nigeria. An informal go to to any heart the place employment aptitude take a look at is being carried out will present one the precise stage of unemployment on this nation. The take a look at carried out by WAMCO Consulting Agency on behalf of 1 Dutch firm final yr witnessed greater than 30 thousand candidates. One other take a look at carried out by the identical agency on behalf of Honeywell recorded extra quantity.
These candidates had been solely those that met the screening standards (ie 2nd Class Higher), am not speaking about those who utilized however had been rejected. When most banks carried out their very own assessments, safety males (illiterates) had been used to drive graduates up and down. Some had been flogged, maltreated and humiliated; simply because they wanted some job. One hardly passes ten folks on the street with out coming throughout at the very least one unemployed graduate. A few of these graduates have migrated spherical all of the cities of Nigeria in quest of jobs; all to no avail. They’ve moved from Lagos to Port-Harcourt, to Kaduna, to Kano, to Onitsha and all different locations undeserving of mentioning.
This socio-economic drawback of unemployment will be attributed to many and various causes. A number of the conspicuous roots of the issue embody inhabitants, educational curriculum, alternative in fact of research, laziness, greed, authorities insurance policies, employment discrimination and authorities poor implementation of its employment insurance policies.
Nigeria is probably the most populated black nation of world. The final carried out census put the determine at over 100 and fifty million. On this nice quantity, greater than 50% are within the labour drive of the nation. What this implies is that there shall be severe drag for the little out there openings of job alternatives out there. This provides the reply to the rationale why greater than thirty thousand Nigerian graduates end up for a job aptitude take a look at that won’t take as much as twenty candidates.
Extra so, one other main explanation for unemployment on this nation is the schooling system and the kind of curriculum they run. From major college to the college, the curriculum is extra of principle than sensible. Within the eighties, major college pupils had been requested to do crafts; molding objects, making baskets, carving works and different handiworks however in the present day in public faculties, they’re requested to convey bathroom tissues as craft whereas in personal faculties, they convey cash in lieu of craft. So, after major college, a holder of First College Leaving Certificates can’t do something along with his or her hand. That of submit major college is nothing to jot down house about. The scholars are taught solely how you can cram textbooks and nothing extra. As soon as you’ll be able to commit all of the contents of Ababio, P. N.
Okeke and Fashionable Biology to reminiscence, you’re a vibrant and clever scholar. No person or no trainer cares whether or not their sensible purposes or not. Ours is Science with out Know-how; which is ineffective. All of the previous Industrial and Vocational Faculties that provided vocational programs like catering, trend and designing and culinary abilities have all been became pure abnormal secondary faculties so as to be a part of the development and never run the danger of being left behind.
All of the graduates of those excessive faculties haven’t any place in economic system as a result of they have no ability to supply for trade. This development takes the scholars into the college. The college is the worst as a result of not solely that it’s principle based mostly system however most lecturers aren’t even prepared to offer that principle. College students are taught laptop science within the classroom with out a single laptop system. Most roadside mechanics are extra skilful than most graduates of mechanical engineering who parade themselves as engineers. A closing yr Accounting scholar has by no means seen an actual money guide besides the hypothetical ones he sees within the textbook. How can a product of this type of system be employable?
Selection in fact of research is one other issue that contributes a lot within the employment issues in Nigeria. Many dad and mom have a tendency to decide on careers for his or her offsprings as a result of they in love with a specific occupation with out contemplating whether or not these their youngsters have penchant for such occupation. Some folks might wish to be musicians or comedians however their dad and mom will kick in opposition to that and drive them right into a self-discipline they’ve aversion for. On the finish, once they come out of college, they can not observe and thus stay unemployed. Once more, resulting from JAMB and its associated admission issues, some college students find yourself finding out what they did not intend finding out initially. Many college students began with Sciences however they ended up finding out an Artwork course resulting from admission ‘wahala’. Nigeria is a creating economic system. For that, not all disciplines are absolutely purposeful right here. When you learn such programs, you stay unemployed until you’ve gotten a godfather someplace. I can nonetheless bear in mind when one former president of Nigeria was addressing some nationwide points on Radio Nigeria and folks had been calling him to ask some questions. One man known as and advised him that he graduated from the college and for 4 years he had not gotten a job. The president requested him what he learn and he replied ‘Sociology’. The president gave a mirthless giggle and advised him that each one the cash spent for coaching him was wasted. Though that professionalism just isn’t so extremely upheld in Nigeria, but there are graduates of sure disciplines that can’t match into Nigerian economic system. The crude mentality of a higher proportion of Nigerians equally contributes to this. For example, any individual who has some issues, obstacles or setbacks would slightly go to a local physician, pastor or prophet as a substitute going to a psychologist.
Extra so, some graduates are lazy to work. They need simple life. They count on all the pieces to come back in a platter of gold. Most of them are on the lookout for white collar jobs the place they may simply sit below an air conditioner, do little or nothing and receives a commission. They may preserve on the lookout for that kind of job until eternity. A graduate was provided a job as a retailer keeper and he has the temerity to say that he will not contact or prepare cartons. This implies he’s lazy and never but able to work. Some feminine graduates think about posting their photos to all of the social networks, relationship and match making web sites on the web to forged their bait and know if they’ll catch a giant fish. No person desires to bear the cross earlier than sporting the crown any longer.
Moreover, some graduates are too grasping. Lots of them do not wish to begin from the scratch. They wish to make it in a single day. They thought that when one graduates from the college, he grow to be tremendous wealthy. Most of them solely discuss and talk about in regards to the ‘huge photographs’ within the society with out taking out time to learn their biographies or at the very least undergo their profiles. In the event that they try this, they may discover out that each one these women and men have labored and served in numerous capacities; each high and low earlier than arriving at their current positions. Instantly after commencement, the eyes of those graduates are set on Politics, Oil and Fuel and Banking (when banking was doing nicely), ignoring different lesser sectors which are prepared and able to take in them. All of them wish to experience fanciful newest vehicles after three months of their employment. That is utopia and mirage as a result of such jobs are semi-nonexistent now. For that, most graduates will carry on ready for them until kingdom come.
Once more, there’s a nice discrimination and prejudice happening within the labour market now. Employers of labour aren’t serving to issues in any respect. Some candidates are prejudiced in opposition to on the grounds of their intercourse, age, kind of certificates and even tribe or ethnicity. Most workplace works will be executed by each women and men alike; why the intercourse discrimination then? Why can we see an advert that goes like this “a young female accountant needed for immediate employment”? Does it imply that a male can’t try this job? Some job interviewers give jobs to girls that aren’t certified as a result of they agreed to sleep or have slept with them; forsaking the extra certified males. Females are equally being discriminated in opposition to however are principally married ladies. Most engineering jobs that includes a lot subject work and fixed motion do not often contemplate ladies. Most new technology banks do not contemplate married ladies. Some go the extent of getting the younger girls signal an enterprise that when they get married, their appointments are terminated. Age is one other space for discrimination. Banks in addition to different blue chip corporations are principally culprits of this offence. Most of them do not settle for any applicant that’s above twenty-four years previous. They want very younger, stunning and engaging girls that they may push into the marketplace for ‘company prostitution’. The younger good-looking guys are used to entice the sugar mummies to function an account with them. . These younger fellows are pushed again into labour market as soon as they failed to satisfy up with the unrealistic targets given to them. The worst discrimination within the labour market is that of BSC/HND dichotomy. Many employers of labour discriminate in opposition to the HND holders in favour of their counterparts with BSC. Though that within the advert, they all the time write BSC or HND because the qualification wanted however when it reaches to the precise job placement, the HND holders are jettisoned. Authorities equally has a hand within the creation of unemployment within the economic system. Some authorities insurance policies are extremely detrimental to job creation on this nation. Some graduates who could not discover jobs decide up bikes and grow to be ‘okada’ riders. However some State Governments thwarted their efforts by laying a ban on okada driving. Many graduates wish to go into the manufacturing of native drinks, cosmetics and different little gadgets with little fund they garnered after service however they do not have the cash to register the merchandise with acceptable authorities companies like NAFDAC, SON and so forth. A few of them that succeeded in erecting a small scale manufacturing companies are being asphyxiated by big and extra taxation. All these not withstanding, the federal government has initiated some insurance policies and established some companies that may assist in addressing the difficulty of employment in Nigeria. Some authorities efforts in direction of reaching a excessive price of employment in Nigeria embody the institution of Federal Ministry of Labour and Productiveness, establishment of the Nigerian Director of Employment, initiating of Nationwide Poverty Eradication Programme and Nationwide Financial Empowerment Improvement Technique.
Federal Ministry of Labour and Productiveness has a community of thirty-one Employment Exchanges and seventeen Skilled and Govt Registries. Nigeria Directorate Of Employment has 4 particular programmes that are Vocational Abilities Improvement, Rural Employment Promotion, Small Scale Enterprises and Particular Works. Nationwide Poverty Eradication Programme has 5 initiatives that are as follows: Village Financial Improvement Options, In Care of the Folks, Group Financial Sensitization Scheme, Multi Accomplice Matching Funds and Rating on Poverty. Nationwide Financial Empowerment Technique is a Nigeria’s plan for prosperity. The federal government manner of letting the folks know the way it plans to beat the deep and pervasive obstacles to progress that the federal government and the folks have recognized. The best of the obstacles is unemployment.
Despite all these establishments and programmes, the economic system is but to really feel any considerable affect on the world of employment. All of them stay solely fanciful drawings which are solely achievable on the pages of the newspapers. NDE not too long ago carried out a Graduate Attachment Programme Check through which greater than one million graduates took half on-line. Lastly, solely 500 had been accepted and educated. After the coaching, there have been no openings the place they might be fastened and the NDE Director, Mallam Abubakar Muhammed was begging the Nigeria Employers Consultative Affiliation to assist take in the trainees as interns. Each day Solar of Wednesday, 21st July, 2010 reported thus “Minister of Finance, Mr. Olusegun Aganga has pledged the FG’s resolve to sort out unemployment within the nation as he decried the 49. 9 p.c unemployment price within the city centres throughout the nation. NAPEP additionally lays a lot emphasis on personal sector initiative as a sustainable poverty eradication initiative. Every little thing now boils all the way down to the personal sector; the federal government just isn’t able to rise as much as its accountability of offering employment for its residents. All these authorities insurance policies lack substance therefore they’re poorly executed.
This social and financial canker known as unemployment has many disastrous penalties on the complete nation. It provides rise to social vices, mass exodus of some Nigerians to different nations, steady financial instability, stagnant or decreased Gross Home Product and so forth.
Many youths who’ve endured the scourge of unemployment for a protracted time frame have determined to problem their destiny by choosing up arms and grow to be armed robbers, political thugs and kidnappers. Kidnapping has grow to be a standard train in Nigeria as a result of youths are idle and satan finds work finds work for idle palms. Each day Solar of Friday sixth August, 2010 reported that one Mr. Silas Ifeanyi, a Home of Consultant aspirant was kidnapped on his manner again to Onisha from his house city Nsukka. Mr. Ifeanyi was very stunned to seek out out that each one his kidnappers had been all graduates. Youths of Niger Delta turned to militancy as a result of they do not have affordable and sustainable jobs. Even the submit Amnesty insurance policies that are supposed to get them fastened into official ventures within the economic system aren’t being absolutely applied as proposed. Basic election is quick approaching and so many unemployed graduates are able to stake their lives simply because they haven’t any alternate options. Feminine unemployed graduates imbibe the spirit of the cliché “use what you must get what you need”. Most of them have became full time prostitutes. Each romantic journal and all relationship web sites have their names and fabricated profiles on the lookout for hook ups.
Some debased themselves to the extent of renting rooms in brothels or hanging in golf equipment and lodge premises for any out there standing.
Many graduates have been unemployed for therefore a few years that they’ve misplaced their self worth and developed an inferiority complicated. They’re withdrawn from social gatherings and disassociate themselves from their mates who appear to be doing nicely economically. Typically, they even endure stigmatization from buddies and family members. The relations who entrusted hopes in them that after their commencement, they may begin benefiting from them are all disenchanted.
Their dad and mom are bored with feeding them and giving them pocket cash even nonetheless after commencement. They’re seen as utter social misfit. All these represent emotional and psychological trauma for the unemployed youth.
Many of the web and ATM rip-off are perpetrated by the unemployed graduates. Web fraud makes use of on-line companies to current solicitations to potential victims, to conduct fraudulent transactions or to transmit the proceeds of fraud to monetary establishments or to others related with the scheme (WIKIPEDIA).
ATM scams are on the rise and using on-line data has made it one of many simpler inter-net scams to drag off for any reasonably technically con artist (http://www.secureidentity.com.au). Why is web and ATM rip-off on the rise? The reply just isn’t far fetched. It’s due to the excessive price of unemployment within the nation. Man should survive one way or the other, they are saying. This doesn’t finish right here. This unemployment has led many youths into completely different types of forgery.
Because of the truth that each employer wants folks with some years of working expertise, many unemployed graduates have began forging appointment letters, in order that they could be thought of. Because of the truth that those who did not participate within the NYSC programme are discriminated in opposition to within the labour market; these graduates that did part-time, sandwich or night programmes go to the extent of forging NYSC discharge certificates or pay cash to some unlawful brokers so as to be mobilized for the programme. Just lately there was a report within the Punch Newspaper of Tuesday, August three;2010 that 69 faux corps members had been arrested in Nasarawa State. How a lot does a corps member earn that may entice any individual to contain himself in such a disgraceful act if not for starvation brought on by unemployment? Some even faux suggestion letters from extremely positioned authorities officers so as to be thought of for a job. Probably the most annoying of all these frauds and scams are those pull by the so-called employment brokers. These are cheer exploiters. These folks figuring out absolutely nicely that many individuals are determined for jobs use it as a chance to cheat them. They go in regards to the cities and cities of the nation pasting posters promoting for non-existent jobs. Some even promote on the pages of Newspapers. The unsuspecting and harmless job seekers all the time fall prey to those criminals. They extort cash from candidates with the promise of linking them with mouth watering jobs. Finally they may disappoint and aBSCond with their cash.
One other main consequence of unemployment is the mass exodus of the youth in a foreign country. That individuals migrating in a foreign country just isn’t the foremost drawback however the challenge is that almost all of them do it illegally. All people is on the lookout for a greener pasture and Nigeria does not appear to be one as a result of there is no such thing as a job, due to this fact folks should go away whether or not legitimately or in any other case! Many Nigerian youths die on their solution to Europe; the place they undergo deserts, forests and different barricades. Most Nigerian youths are presently languishing in overseas prisons simply because they’re struggling for survival (though generally wrongly). Most individuals have been duped by some so-called journey brokers. These brokers acquire cash from folks below the pretext that they may put together touring papers and assist them to journey. Lastly they may aBSCond with all these cash with out doing something.
The financial impact of this unemployment on the nation is that there’s a nice loss within the potential output that might have been generated by these unemployed labour drive. This decreases what ought to have been the precise Gross Home Product. This finally results in financial instability. Nigeria was not invited to the G20 Summit on the grounds of political however principally financial instability.
Regardless of all these causes and penalties of this financial drawback of unemployment, one thing nonetheless must be executed to handle if not redress the state of affairs. We won’t proceed crying over the spilt milk slightly we must always rise to the challenges and take the bull by the horns. The federal government via its Ministries, Departments and Businesses ought to get up to its tasks. The Federal and numerous State Ministries of Training ought to restructure the educational curriculum to swimsuit the calls for of the current day economic system. The schemes of labor needs to be extra sensible oriented than principle based mostly. Vocational research needs to be inspired. There needs to be institution of extra technical faculties and the prevailing ones needs to be adequately geared up. Authorities ought to present sensible supplies to its numerous universities. These supplies embody computer systems, laboratory gear, equipment and so forth.
Furthermore, dad and mom ought to cease interfering of their youngsters’s alternative of profession. These youngsters needs to be allowed to decide on what they’ve ardour for in order that they’ll observe after the coaching. Once more the potential undergraduates who’re discovering it tough to go College Matriculation Examination ought to desist from accepting ‘anyhow’ course provided to them by the college due to their low grade slightly they need to work more durable to attain their objective regardless of how lengthy it’d take. They’re suggested to go for programs which are presently related within the Nigerian economic system. Nigeria presently wants extra of those that studied enterprise associated or sensible oriented programs.
One other space that deserves authorities consideration as regards employment is the provision of electrical energy. Some graduates are prepared to enter small scale manufacturing however because of the erratic nature of the ability provide; they’re incapacitated. The price of manufacturing shall be too excessive in the event that they rely upon generator set. Most of them can’t afford the price.
Loans and credit needs to be made out there and accessible to younger graduates who wish to go into entrepreneurship. There are 4 hundred and 7 registered microfinance banks in Nigeria, but younger entrepreneurs haven’t got entry to funds. Most of them give loans at an outrageous price of 20% every year with collateral safety supplied they usually do not give greater than fifty thousand naira. But they declare that microfinance banks assist the youths principally in reaching their targets in life (Scribd web site). The federal government ought to mandate the monetary establishments to supply loans for graduates who want to go into enterprise ventures at a really low rate of interest and settle for solely their educational certificates as collateral.
Lastly, younger graduates who’re but get jobs ought to be taught to take their destiny of their palms. On the again cowl web page of Fortunate Star train guide is written “The one Nigerian who doesn’t ask anyone to offer him work is the uneducated”. If that is true of uneducated, then the educated needs to be higher off. They cant proceed asking anyone to offer them work. They need to be job creators as a substitute of job seekers. What I imply is that self employment and entrepreneurship needs to be in the back of thoughts of each younger graduate. Nigerian economic system nonetheless has a really large market and alternatives craving to be tapped. It solely wants cautious observations and thorough evaluation. Alternatives abound within the areas like ICT, Sports activities, Leisure, enterprise and agriculture. With the little cash saved throughout youth service, one can begin up a small enterprise which is certain to develop with time. With the information of ICT methods, one can do many issues like designing of graphics, printing of labels, identification playing cards and so forth. An unemployed graduate can manage some leisure exhibits or sit down and write books. He can equally write scripts for film productions or write different entertaining books and promote them off to publishers. He can worse nonetheless connect himself to a non-public college as a tutor and on the identical time be organizing personal tutorial lessons for college students and adults.
Conclusively, some specialists and authorities say that agriculture was the mainstay of the economic system earlier than the invention of petroleum however I keep that agriculture remains to be the mainstay of the economic system. The discharge by Nationwide Bureau of Statistics exhibits that agriculture contributed the very best quota of 41. 84% to the Gross Home Product of 2009 whereas the ‘almighty’ petroleum contributed solely 16. 05%. This suggests that agriculture nonetheless dominates the economic system. So, the younger graduates who’re but to safe jobs ought to see agriculture as an excellent various. Areas like fish rearing, rabbit rearing, small scale poultry, vegetable plantation and quite a few others needs to be explored. These don’t take a lot sources. For example, fish will be reared in a GP storage tank and even in a really small aquarium.
Subsequently, the innumerable unemployed graduates ought to gird their loins and prepare for actions. They need to cease ready for presidency as authorities has nothing to supply by way of employment. They need to make use of the potentialities that nature endows them with to give you concepts, improvements and options. After you have options to folks’s issues, they need to come on the lookout for you and pay any worth you require. The world wants an issue solver and when you grow to be one, one can find out that THERE IS NO UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA.