William Ewart Gladstone (1809-98) was the best British reforming statesman of the 19th century. He was Prime Minister of Britain 3 times.
Gladstone initially supposed to turn into an Anglican clergyman however, following his father’s recommendation, he took up politics. He entered the British Parliament in 1832 as a Conservative (or Tory). Throughout the prime ministerships of Sir Robert Peel, George Hamilton and Lord Palmerston, Gladstone turned President of the Board of Commerce (1843-45) and Chancellor of the Exchequer (1852-55; 1859-66). Throughout these latter durations, he set about slicing tariffs and authorities expenditure.
Cautious husbandry of presidency monies could be an ever-recurring theme in Gladstone’s political philosophy. “Finance is, as it were, the the stomach of the country, from which all the other organs take their tone,” he wrote in 1858.
In 1867 Gladstone left the Conservatives to turn into chief of the Liberal Get together.
He turned Prime Minister for the primary time in 1868. In 1870 he established a system of nationwide elementary schooling (a primary in British instructional historical past).
He considered the British rule of Eire as the reason for many evils and injustices for the Irish individuals over a interval of centuries. He subsequently disestablished the Irish Church (that’s, the Anglican Church in Eire), thereby decreasing the ability of Protestant Anglicanism within the primarily Roman Catholic Eire. He additionally handed the Irish Land Act, which made it harder for British landlords to evict their Irish tenants.
He undertook a scheme of parliamentary reform, bringing in secret ballots and increasing voting rights to working class males (the latter went a good distance in direction of reaching common male suffrage).
In his closing two durations as Prime Minister, Gladstone tried to herald Irish Dwelling Rule, one other measure designed to finish centuries of British misrule in Eire. Nevertheless, because of Liberal Get together splits, he was defeated repeatedly on the Dwelling Rule laws that he tried to push via.
Though he didn’t prevail on this subject, he nonetheless believed that Irish Dwelling Rule must come sooner or later:
“We are bound to lose Ireland in consequence of years of cruelty, stupidity and misgovernment and I would rather lose her as a friend than as a foe.” (Gladstone as quoted in Margot Asquith’s 1933 e-book, Extra Reminiscences.)
Gladstone’s magnificent report of Parliamentary achievements was considerably tarnished by the loss of life of Common Gordon in Khartoum, Sudan in 1885 (an occasion blamed on the failure of Gladstone’s authorities to assist the overall in Khartoum and on Gladstone’s supposed disinterest in overseas affairs) and by Britain’s defeats within the First Boer Conflict (1881).
With reference to overseas coverage, Gladstone definitely had robust views which had been typically at odds with the jingoism and imperialism of his day. For instance, on Britain’s invasions of Afghanistan throughout the Victorian period, listed below are the eloquent phrases of Gladstone in an 1879 speech:
“Remember the rights of the savage, as we call him. Remember the happiness of his humble home, remember that the sanctity of life in the hill villages of Afghanistan, among the winter snows, is as inviolable in the eye of Almighty God, as can be your own.”
(These phrases, written as they’re in Victorian English, nonetheless stay painfully related throughout the present NATO intervention in in Afghanistan.)
Like his parliamentary arch rival, the Conservative Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone was a powerful orator. He was additionally an excellent classical scholar.
Gladstone was a person of robust ethical convictions, who, some say, acted extra like a priest than a typical politician. These convictions – and thereby the achievements of his political profession – had been based on the bedrock of his profound Christian spiritual rules.
William Ewart Gladstone left a robust legacy, not solely within the in depth laws he proposed, promoted and handed, however within the custom of extra democracy allied with extra effectivity and the discount of pointless authorities expenditure.